Concrete art
Max Bill
Veränderung von Weiss in Violett, 1965
Max Bill
Zwillinge, 1968
Max Bill
Violettes und Rotgrünes Quadrat, 1961-1962
Max Bill
Composition, 1986
Max Bill
Composition, 1988
Richard Paul Lohse
Gruppe von 8 Quadraten mit vier Rechtecken, 1952/1974
Richard Paul Lohse
Vier gleiche Gruppen an vier Feldern, 1959/70
Richard Paul Lohse
Vertikalen, 1970
Richard Paul Lohse
Komposition, s.d.
Richard Paul Lohse
Komposition, s.d.
Richard Paul Lohse
Komposition, 1971
Camille Graeser
Translokation II, 1969
Gottfried Honegger
Tableau-Relief (P.Z.13), 1962
Gottfried Honegger
Skulpture Espace 5, 1975
Gottfried Honegger
Tableau Relief P997, 1989
Gottfried Honegger
Tableau Relief Z589, 1969
Fritz Glarner
Relational Painting N° 59, 1952

In 1930, Dutch artist Theo Van Doesburg and four of his friends openly declared war on every kind of impressionism, sensibility and subjectivity in art. The concrete art group and the magazine Art Concret, which they founded in Paris, argued for rational, universal art “entirely conceived and shaped by the mind”, without “receiving anything from nature's formal properties, or from sensuality or sentimentality”1.

Heir to Mondrian’s neoplasticism and to the principles promoted by the De Stijl movement, concrete art sought “absolute clarity” through a “simple, visually controllable” structure that signified nothing beyond itself. The emotional impulses perceptible in traditional abstraction were excluded in favour of a logical composition based on predetermined mathematical principles.

Concrete art’s Zurich home crystallised a few years later when Max Bill (1908-1994)—influenced by his studies at the Bauhaus and his friendship with members of the Abstraction-Création group in Paris—drew up his own theory on concrete art. Bill advocated a rational art, developed according to its own rules and integrating everyday life. Like the artists of the Allianz association, which Bill joined in 1937, he favoured the use of neutral, geometric, easily understandable shapes.

These Zurich concrete artists—including Richard Paul Lohse (1902-1988), Leo Leuppi, Walter Bodmer, Verena Loewensberg, Camille Graeser (1892-1980), Gottfried Honegger (1917-2016) and Sophie Tauber-Arp—all showed the same predilection for skilfully calculated geometric arrangements. In that vein, Lohse opted for modular compositions in which all elements are mutually supportive, independent and equal; Graeser favoured systematic composition principles like addition, rotation or progression, while Honegger ended up entrusting the production of mathematical calculations to a computer. The visual effect is that of an almost rhythmic chromatic polyphony, which seems to be articulated—as in the works of Fritz Glarner (1899-1972)—according to warm/cool, bright/dark and neutral/intense relationships.

For the artists of concrete art, the work primarily designates a balanced, coherent whole, whose elements are defined by their relationships with one another within the image. These relationships very often become symbols of an ideal, democratic organization, based on all individuals benefiting from the same rights and freedoms.  

[1] Carlsund, Doesbourg, Hélion, Tutundjian, Wantz, « Base de la peinture concrète », in Art Concret, n°1, 1930, Paris.

Concrete art